This is your very first post. Click the Edit link to modify or delete it, or start a new post. If you like, use this post to tell readers why you started this blog and what you plan to do with it.
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This is your very first post. Click the Edit link to modify or delete it, or start a new post. If you like, use this post to tell readers why you started this blog and what you plan to do with it.
1.There are more trees on Earth than stars in our galaxy
NASA experts believe there could be anywhere from 100 billion to 400 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy, Snopes reports. However, a 2015 paper published in the journal Nature estimated that the number of trees around the world is much higher: 3.04 trillion.
2.Oxygen has a color
As a gas, oxygen is odorless and colorless. In its liquid and solid forms, however, it looks pale blue. Some science facts are just plain weird. Next, learn fascinating facts about America and its history that you never learned in school.
3.Only one letter doesn’t appear in the periodic table
It’s the letter J.
4.Bananas are radioactive
For one of our strangest science facts, bananas contain potassium, and since potassium decays, that makes them slightly radioactive. But it’s nothing you need to worry about. You’d need to eat 10,000,000 bananas at once to die of radiation poisoning, Forbes reports.
5.Hot water freezes faster than cold water
This fact seems counterintuitive, but it’s called the Mpemba effect, after a Tanzanian student named Erasto Mpemba who told his teacher than a hot mixture of ice cream froze faster than a cold one. Scientists now believe this is because the velocities of water particles have a specific disposition while they’re hot that allows them to freeze more readily. If proven correct, this finding could also have implications in daily life, like cooling down electronic devices.
6.Cold water heats up faster than hot water
The researchers who investigated the cause of the Mpemba effect made this discovery as well. They unsurprisingly named the phenomenon the inverse Mpemba effect.
7.Humans are related to fungi
A 2015 study from the University of Cambridge suggests that mankind may have evolved with genes that came from plants. Because of those findings, researchers accept that about 1 percent of the human genome could have been acquired from plants, The Telegraph reports. So all those times your corny uncle called himself a “fungi”? He was actually sort of right.
But don’t worry—we have a lot of DNA
Scientists predict that there are over 3 billion base pairs of DNA in human genes and over 25,000 genes in the human genome. An entire copy of that genome exists in each of the 10 trillion cells in the human body. If all of that DNA were lined up, it would cover the distance between Earth and the sun 100 times. Don’t miss these mysteries about the human body no one can solve.
8.It can rain diamonds on other planets
Diamonds are definitely the Milky Way galaxy’s best friends. Studies have examined the potential that Neptune, Uranus, Jupiter, and Saturn have to produce diamonds. The atmospheres in all four planets have such extreme pressure that they can crystalize carbon atoms and turn them into diamonds. Scientists were able to create the correct conditions in a lab to prove this occurs on Neptune and Uranus. Separately, a different group of researchers speculates that it may rain as much as 2.2 million pounds of diamonds on parts of Saturn every year––this is definitely the richest of our science facts!
9.You can make balls fly
If you spin a ball when you drop it, it will fly through the air as it falls. This is called the Magnus effect, and it makes playing tennis and soccer a whole lot easier.
10.Water can exist in three states at once
This is called the Triple Boil, and at that temperature, water exists as a gas, a liquid, and a solid simultaneously. It requires very specific conditions to achieve, so don’t even think about trying it at home. Check out these other “facts” you’ve always believed that are actually false.
11.Only one type of mammal has wings
Those mammals would be bats. While flying squirrels can jump from trees and glide, they can’t truly fly like bats can.
12.Helium can also work against gravity
When helium is cooled to extreme temperatures, just a few degrees away from absolute zero (-460˚F or -273˚C), it turns into a superfluid, meaning it can flow without friction. It can climb up and over the sides of a glass. It can leak through molecule-think cracks in a container. If it starts flowing like a fountain, it will never stop.
13.Solar flares are scarily powerful
The energy they release is the equivalent of 100-megaton atomic bombs exploding at once. It’s a good thing the Earth’s atmosphere protects us from their radiation.
It’s impossible to burp in space
When you burp on Earth, gravity keeps down the solids and liquid from the food you just ate, so only the gas escapes from your mouth. In the absence of gravity, the gas cannot separate from the liquids and solids, so burping essentially turns into puking. Check out these foods that are actually banned from space.
14.About half of your body is bacteria
That’s right. A 2014 study estimates that the human body consists of 39 trillion bacteria and 30 trillion human cells. In the past, researchers thought we were more bacteria than human with a ratio of 10:1. While this new calculation is probably closer to the true numbers, it’s not a hard fact. Here are 20 more obscure facts you never knew about your own body.
15.Men are more likely to be colorblind than women
The genes responsible for the most common type of colorblindness are found on the X chromosome, the National Eye Institute explains. Even if women have the genes on one of their two X chromosomes, a properly functioning gene on the other one makes up for that loss. If men inherit the gene on their only X chromosome, they’ll become colorblind.
16.We have no idea what most of the universe looks like
About 96 percent of the universe is made up of dark matter and dark energy, which are undetectable to humans. Scientists believe this is because the particles that make up these substances don’t interact with regular matter or light. Even though scientific discoveries are constantly being made about the stars, planets, and other galaxies we can see, it’s impossible to make conclusions about things that are invisible to our eyes.
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Keezhadi is one of the three habitation sites that has ever been found in Tamil Nadu ( the other two being: Arikkamedu, in 1947, and Kaveripoompattinam, in 1965.). Keezhadi is more important amongst the three sites because it has yielded concrete evidence which proves the existence of a flourishing urban civilisation that existed 2300 years ago. Over 5000 artefacts have been discovered during the excavation work that was conducted on a very small tract of land (Less than 2% of the 110 acre excavation site has been explored so far).
So far, information regarding the Sangam age has only been derived from the Literature of the period. A lot of evidence gathered in Keezhadi can give testimony to the information found in Tamil Sangam Literature. Some Tamil Research Scholars and Archaeologists are of the opinion that Keezhadi could be the Ancient Madurai that is described in Silapathikaram.
Furthermore, it has to be noted that apart from the Indus Valley Civilisation Site, no other site in the Indian Subcontinent contains traces of such an ancient civilisation. And further excavation in the site can lead to new historical insights which might perhaps demand a rewriting of Tamil history.
Moreover, there is a theory that in Ancient Tamil Nadu, only racial groups existed, and that urban civilisation was found only along Indus-Gangetic valley. Keezhadi’s excavation has the potential to nullify that theory.
It would be apt to quote Amarnath Ramakrishna, the Superintending Archaeologist at Keezhadi here:
“The existence of burnt brick structures is an important factor to define an urban civilisation. Here in Keezhadi, we have found continuous constructed walls of 10 to 15 metres in length. We haven’t found such lengthy walls in any other site in Tamil Nadu. We have also found structures of open and closed drainage network, which are clear indications of the prevalence of an urban civilisation. Also present at the site were six furnaces, which indicate the possibility of an industrial site—again an evidence to prove urban civilisation. We have also found square and rectangle tanks for which no inlets and outlets can be seen. More excavations will help us find out more evidences. The carbon dating of samples collected from the site has placed it at 200 BC. Only two out of the 20 samples selected were sent to US for carbon dating, though I have written numerous times [to the central government] seeking approval for all 20 samples.
Continuous, long-term excavations in north India have led to the discovery of cities such as Pataliputra, Hasthinapur, et cetera. But in Tamil Nadu, no such excavations have taken place so far. That is why, though we find strong literary evidences of Madurai being a city, we have not been able to gather archaeological evidences so far.”
The following factors explain how and why the BJP Government has stopped Excavation Work at Keezhadi:
Threat to BJP’s Communal Politics:
The evidence gathered in Keezhadi poses a threat to BJP’s politics that’s based on the glorification of Hinduism and on spreading revivalism. In Keezhadi, after the first and second phases of the excavation, archaeologists have found nothing of religious significance. This evidence can shatter the right wing propaganda that we were all Hindus from times immemorial, and prove that the Ancient Tamils were either secular or worshippers of natural elements like fire.
Transfer of the Superintending Archaeologist, Amarnath Ramakrishna:
Citing an irrational new policy, the BJP Government transfered Amarnath Ramakrishna, the Superintending Archaeologist at Keezhadi to Guhawati, Assam. The new policy which transfers archaeologists and field officers who have been working for more than two years is not based on any sound rationale. And this policy has not been implemented in other excavation cites in Vadnagar, Gujarat; Urain, Bihar and Binjor, Rajasthan. There are officers who have been working for more than two years in the above-mentioned sites.
The effect of this transfer is a huge setback to the excavation process because it is imperative for the head archaeologist to understand the excavation process that the site demands, and the history and significance of the place. Excavation is an academic process too, and the process is slowed down inevitably with meaningless transfers. The replacement of Amarnath Ramakrishna is a Deputy Superintending Archaeologist hailing from the maintenance department. Apart from being new to the Keezhadi site, he also lacks prior experience in conducting and leading excavation work.
Continued Funding of other Excavation Sites:
The BJP, which keeps reiterating that the project has only been paused due to a paucity of funds, is very keen on funding the other three projects in the native place of Narendra Modi, Rajasthan and Bihar. While more than 5000 artifacts, industrial evidences, tools used for weaving, drainage systems, red bricks.etc have been unearthed in Keezhadi, nothing remarkable has been found in all the other sites.
Closure of the Excavation Site at Keezhadi:
Moreover, if the Project has been really paused, why did the Authorities fill up the painstakingly unearthed excavation site with earth. Today, there is no visible sign of excavation work being carried there.
1. Joining both the palms and greeting
In Hindu culture, people greet each other by joining their palms – termed as “Namaskar.” The general reason behind this tradition is that greeting by joining both the palms means respect. However, scientifically speaking, joining both hands ensures joining the tips of all the fingers together; which are denoted to the pressure points of eyes, ears, and mind. Pressing them together is said to activate the pressure points which helps us remember that person for a long time. And, no germs since we don’t make any physical contact!
2. Why do Indian Women wear Toe Ring
Wearing toe rings is not just the significance of married women but there is science behind it. Normally toe rings are worn on the second toe. A particular nerve from the second toe connects the uterus and passes to heart. Wearing toe ring on this finger strengthens the uterus. It will keep it healthy by regulating the blood flow to it and menstrual cycle will be regularized. As Silver is a good conductor, it also absorbs polar energies from the earth and passes it to the body.
3. Throwing Coins into a River
The general reasoning given for this act is that it brings Good Luck. However, scientifically speaking, in the ancient times, most of the currency used was made of copper unlike the stainless steel coins of today. Copper is a vital metal very useful to the human body. Throwing coins in the river was one way our fore-fathers ensured we intake sufficient copper as part of the water as rivers were the only source of drinking water. Making it a custom ensured that all of us follow the practice.
4. Applying Tilak/KumKum on the Forehead
On the forehead, between the two eyebrows, is a spot that is considered as a major nerve point in human body since ancient times. The Tilak is believed to prevent the loss of “energy”, the red ‘kumkum’ between the eyebrows is said to retain energy in the human body and control the various levels of concentration. While applying kumkum the points on the mid-brow region and Adnya-chakra are automatically pressed. This also facilitates the blood supply to the face muscles.
5. Why do Temples have Bells
People who are visiting the temple should and will Ring the bell before entering the inner sanctum (Garbhagudi or Garbha Gruha or womb-chamber) where the main idol is placed. According to Agama Sastra, the bell is used to give sound for keeping evil forces away and the ring of the bell is pleasant to God. However, the scientific reason behind bells is that their ring clears our mind and helps us stay sharp and keep our full concentration on devotional purpose. These bells are made in such a way that when they produce a sound it creates a unity in the Left and Right parts of our brains. The moment we ring the bell, it produces a sharp and enduring sound which lasts for minimum of 7 seconds in echo mode. The duration of echo is good enough to activate all the seven healing centres in our body. This results in emptying our brain from all negative thoughts.
6. Why We Start with Spice & End with Sweet:
Our ancestors have stressed on the fact that our meals should be started off with something spicy and sweet dishes should be taken towards the end. The significance of this eating practice is that while spicy things activate the digestive juices and acids and ensure that the digestion process goes on smoothly and efficiently, sweets or carbohydrates pulls down the digestive process. Hence, sweets were always recommended to be taken as a last item.
7. Why Do We Applying Mehendi/Henna on the Hand and Feet
Besides lending color to the hands, mehndi is a very powerful medicinal herb. Weddings are stressful, and often, the stress causes headaches and fevers. As the wedding day approaches, the excitement mixed with nervous anticipation can take its toll on the bride and groom. Application of mehndi can prevent too much stress because it cools the body and keeps the nerves from becoming tense. This is the reason why mehndi is applied on the hands and feet, which house nerve endings in the body.
8. Sitting on the Floor & Eating
This tradition is not just about sitting on floor and eating, it is regarding sitting in the “Sukhasan” position and then eating. Sukhasan is the position we normally use for Yoga asanas. When you sit on the floor, you usually sit cross legged – In sukhasana or a half padmasana (half lotus), which are poses that instantly bring a sense of calm and help in digestion, it is believed to automatically trigger the signals to your brain to prepare the stomach for digestion.
9. Why you should not to sleep with Your Head towards North
Myth is that it invites ghost or death but science says that it is because human body has its own magnetic field (Also known as hearts magnetic field, because the flow of blood) and Earth is a giant magnet. When we sleep with head towards north, our body’s magnetic field become completely asymmetrical to the Earth’s Magnetic field. That cause problems related to blood pressure and our heart needs to work harder in order to overcome this asymmetry of Magnetic fields. Apart from this another reason is that Our body have significant amount of iron in our blood. When we sleep in this position, iron from the whole body starts to congregate in brain. This can cause headache, Alzheimer’s Disease, Cognitive Decline, Parkinson disease and brain degeneration.
10. Why We Pierce Ear
Piercing the ears has a great importance in Indian ethos. Indian physicians and philosophers believe that piercing the ears helps in the development of intellect, power of thinking and decision making faculties. Talkativeness fritters away life energy. Ear piercing helps in speech-restraint. It helps to reduce impertinent behavior and the ear-channels become free from disorders. This idea appeals to the Western world as well, and so they are getting their ears pierced to wear fancy earrings as a mark of fashion.
11. Surya Namaskar
Hindus have a tradition of paying regards to Sun God early in the morning by their water offering ritual. It was mainly because looking at Sun rays through water or directly at that time of the day is good for eyes and also by waking up to follow this routine, we become prone to a morning lifestyle and mornings are proven to be the most effective part of the day.
12. Choti on the Male Head
Sushrut rishi, the foremost surgeon of Ayurveda, describes the master sensitive spot on the head as Adhipati Marma, where there is a nexus of all nerves. The shikha protects this spot. Below, in the brain, occurs the Brahmarandhra, where the sushumnã (nerve) arrives from the lower part of the body. In Yog, Brahmarandhra is the highest, seventh chakra, with the thousand-petalled lotus. It is the centre of wisdom. The knotted shikhã helps boost this centre and conserve its subtle energy known as ojas.
13. Why do we Fast
The underlying principle behind fasting is to be found in Ayurveda. This ancient Indian medical system sees the basic cause of many diseases as the accumulation of toxic materials in the digestive system. Regular cleansing of toxic materials keeps one healthy. By fasting, the digestive organs get rest and all body mechanisms are cleansed and corrected. A complete fast is good for heath, and the occasional intake of warm lemon juice during the period of fasting prevents the flatulence. Since the human body, as explained by Ayurveda, is composed of 80% liquid and 20% solid, like the earth, the gravitational force of the moon affects the fluid contents of the body. It causes emotional imbalances in the body, making some people tense, irritable and violent. Fasting acts as antidote, for it lowers the acid content in the body which helps people to retain their sanity. Research suggests there are major health benefits to caloric restriction like reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, immune disorders etc.
14. The scientific explanation of touching Feet (charan sparsh)
Usually, the person of whose feet you are touching is either old or pious. When they accept your respect which came from your reduced ego (and is called your shraddha) their hearts emit positive thoughts and energy (which is called their karuna) which reaches you through their hands and toes. In essence, the completed circuit enables flow of energy and increases cosmic energy, switching on a quick connect between two minds and hearts. To an extent, the same is achieved through handshakes and hugs. The nerves that start from our brain spread across all your body. These nerves or wires end in the fingertips of your hand and feet. When you join the fingertips of your hand to those of their opposite feet, a circuit is immediately formed and the energies of two bodies are connected. Your fingers and palms become the ‘receptor’ of energy and the feet of other person become the ‘giver’ of energy.
15. Why Married Women apply Sindoor or Vermillion
It is interesting to note that that the application of sindoor by married women carries a physiological significance. This is so because Sindoor is prepared by mixing turmeric-lime and the metal mercury. Due to its intrinsic properties, mercury, besides controlling blood pressure also activates sexual drive. This also explains why Sindoor is prohibited for the widows. For best results, Sindoor should be applied right upto the pituitary gland where all our feelings are centered. Mercury is also known for removing stress and strain.
16. Why do we worship Peepal Tree
‘Peepal’ tree is almost useless for an ordinary person, except for its shadow. ‘Peepal’ does not a have a delicious fruit, its wood is not strong enough for any purpose then why should a common villager or person worship it or even care for it? Our ancestors knew that ‘Peepal’ is one of the very few trees (or probably the only tree) which produces oxygen even at night. So in order to save this tree because of its unique property they related it to God/religion.
17. Why do we worship Tulsi Plant
Hindu religion has bestowed ‘Tulsi’, with the status of mother. Also known as ‘Sacred or Holy Basil’, Tulsi, has been recognized as a religious and spiritual devout in many parts of the world. The vedic sages knew the benefits of Tulsi and that is why they personified it as a Goddess and gave a clear message to the entire community that it needs to be taken care of by the people, literate or illiterate. We try to protect it because it is like Sanjeevani for the mankind. Tulsi has great medicinal properties. It is a remarkable antibiotic. Taking Tulsi everyday in tea or otherwise increases immunity and help the drinker prevent diseases, stabilize his or her health condition, balance his or her body system and most important of all, prolong his or her life. Keeping Tulsi plant at home prevents insects and mosquitoes from entering the house. It is said that snakes do not dare to go near a Tulsi plant. Maybe that is why ancient people would grow lots of Tulsi near their houses.
18. Why do we worship Idol
Hinduism propagates idol worship more than any other religion. Researchers say that this was initiated for the purpose of increasing concentration during prayers. According to psychiatrists, a man will shape his thoughts as per what he sees. If you have 3 different objects in front of you, your thinking will change according to the object you are viewing. Similarly, in ancient India, idol worship was established so that when people view idols it is easy for them to concentrate to gain spiritual energy and meditate without mental diversion
19. Why do Indian Women wear Bangles
Normally the wrist portion is in constant activation on any human. Also the pulse beat in this portion is mostly checked for all sorts of ailments. The Bangles used by women are normally in the wrist part of ones hand and its constant friction increases the blood circulation level. Further more the electricity passing out through outer skin is again reverted to one’s own body because of the ring shaped bangles, which has no ends to pass the energy outside but to send it back to the body.
20. Why should we visit temple?
Temples are located strategically at a place where the positive energy is abundantly available from the magnetic and electric wave distributions of north/south pole thrust. The main idol is placed in the core center of the temple, known as “*Garbhagriha*” or *Moolasthanam*. In fact, the temple structure is built after the idol has been placed. This *Moolasthanam* is where earth’s magnetic waves are found to be maximum. We know that there are some copper plates, inscribed with Vedic scripts, buried beneath the Main Idol. What are they really? No, they are not God’s / priests’ flash cards when they forget the *shlokas*. The copper plate absorbs earth’s magnetic waves and radiates it to the surroundings. Thus a person regularly visiting a temple and walking clockwise around the Main Idol receives the beamed magnetic waves and his body absorbs it. This is a very slow process and a regular visit will let him absorb more of this positive energy. Scientifically, it is the positive Energy.
How are you doing? I hope you are doing well. I know life has been tough but you have done quite a good job to stay alive. Thank you for not giving up.
Life is not a straight line, it goes up and down. If you are sometimes happy or sometimes sad, be glad because this is life. If you don’t want these ups and downs in life, then that is as good as wanting death.
The challenges you have gone through, and those you will face in the future, may break you down. It makes you think about your self-worth, your weakness, and your failure. This devil will try to hold you from walking toward your goal. It is like a dark cloud full of negative thoughts that turns even darker every time you look up to find a hope.
During our past life journey, I am terribly sorry that I was not great enough to ignite your motivation, was not good enough to encourage, to appreciate you. Sorry that I allowed you to hang your head down low. I was not all ears to listen to your problems. I did not stand up for you.
But behind these dark clouds, there is a bright blue sky waiting to shine on you once you blow those clouds away. The same goes to these hardships; while you are looking for help to unlock this hardship, you also learn something: nobody can help you but yourself.
Have you noticed that you have changed? You have. You have improved. I am glad that you did. You are able to drive to school, ask for information, call to make an appointment, etc., all by yourself. You got excited to come to the UNICEF office for a meeting with people you have never met before, all by yourself. It was a hundred percent different from the past, when your anxiety would make you cancel your attendance by using “I’m busy” as an excuse. This change is beautiful. Keep it going throughout your life.
I hope you are more confident to stand up and rise up to challenges. I hope you stop comparing your life to that of others. Tell yourself that your life is perfectly imperfect. At the end of the day, it is all about yourself. Always learn to love and appreciate yourself before you want to be accepted or loved by others.
As I am writing this letter, your life isn’t fully figured out yet. You are not 100% sure of your direction, or what you are going to do long-term in life. The clock is running way too fast. Future is something that keeps you anxiously awake at night. So someday in the future, let’s say in 2 or 3 years, once you come back to read this letter, I hope you will feel happy that you have followed a path that you are proud of, which allows you to understand yourself better.
Surprise me with what you have in store. And something to remember is that it is okay to not know what you want to do in life.
தமிழில் உள்ள உயிரெழுத்துகள் பன்னிரண்டு. அ, ஆ, இ, ஈ, உ, ஊ, எ, ஏ, ஐ, ஒ, ஓ, ஔ – ஆகியன அவை. இந்தப் பன்னிரண்டு உயிரெழுத்துகளையும் குறில், நெடில் என்று இரண்டு வகைகளாய்ப் பிரித்திருக்கிறோம். எப்படி ஒன்றை குறில் என்றும் இன்னொன்றை நெடில் எனும் சொல்கிறோம்? ஒவ்வொரு எழுத்தையும் உச்சரிக்க எடுத்துக்கொள்ளும் காலளவு எவ்வளவோ அதை வைத்துத்தான் இந்தப் பிரிவினை.
கண்ணிமைப்பதற்கும், கையைச்சொடுக்குவதற்கும் தேவைப்படும் நேரத்தை ஒரு மாத்திரை என்பார்கள். சொடுக்குப் போடும் நேரம் ஒரு மாத்திரை. குறில் எனப்படும் எழுத்துகளை ஒலிக்க ஒரு மாத்திரையளவு நேரம் எடுத்துக்கொள்ள வேண்டும். அ, இ, உ, எ, ஒ ஆகிய ஐந்தும் குறில்கள். இவற்றை ஒலிக்க ஒரு கைச்சொடுக்கு நேரத்தை எடுத்துக்கொள்ளலாம்.
நெடில் எனப்படும் நெட்டெழுத்துகளை ஒலிக்க இரண்டு மாத்திரையளவு காலம் தேவைப்படும். ஆ, ஈ, ஊ, ஏ, ஐ, ஓ, ஔ – ஆகிய ஏழும் நெடில்கள். இவ்வெழுத்துகளை ஒலிக்க இரண்டு சொடுக்குக் கால அளவு தேவைப்படும். குறிலை நீட்டி ஒலிப்பதோ, நெடிலைக் குறைத்து ஒலிப்பதோ தவறு. குறிலைக் குறுக்கியும் நெடிலை நீட்டியும் கூற வேண்டும்.
ஆங்கிலத்தில் ஐந்தே ஐந்து உயிரெழுத்துகள் மட்டுமே இருக்கின்றன. a, e, i, o, u ஆகியன அவை. தமிழில் மட்டும் ஏன் பன்னிரண்டு உயிரெழுத்துகள் உள்ளன? இங்கேதான் நம் மொழியின் சிறப்பு அடங்கியிருக்கிறது.
அ என்னும் உயிரெழுத்தின் அதே நீண்ட ஒலிப்புத்தான் ஆ. அவ்வாறே பிற உயிர்நெடில்களும் தமக்கு முன்னுள்ள குறிலின் நீண்ட ஒலிப்பாகத்தான் இருக்கின்றன. நிலநடுக்கோட்டை ஒட்டிய நம் நிலப்பகுதி மிகுந்த வெப்பமுடையது.
நம்மால் ஓர் எழுத்தை நீட்டித்து நன்கு ஒலிக்க முடியும். அவ்வாறு ஒலிப்பது உடலுக்கும் உயிருக்கும் ஊட்டம் தரவல்ல மூச்சுப் பயிற்சியும் ஆகும். அதனால் நாம் நெடில்களை நெடிதாய் ஒலிக்கிறோம். நம் மொழி எழுத்துகளில் குறில்களைவிடவும் நெடில்கள் மிகுதியாய் இருக்கின்றன.
ஐந்து குறில்களுக்கு ஏழு நெடில்கள் உள்ளன.
நெடில் எழுத்துகளை ஒலிக்கும்போது நம் மார்பு சுருங்கி விரிகிறது. ஆ என்னும்போது மார்புக் காற்று நன்கு வெளியேறுகிறது. உடலில் உள்ள காற்று வெளியேறுமளவு வாயை திறக்கிறோம். ஊ என்னும்போது கிட்டத்தட்ட ஊதுகிறோம். ஒலித்து முடித்ததும் நுரையீரலுக்குள் புத்தம் புதிதாய் உயிர்க்காற்று நிரம்புகிறது.
ஆனால், ஆண்டுக்குப் பாதிநாள்கள் பனிபெய்யும் நிலத்தவர்களாகிய மேலை நாட்டினர், தம் எழுத்துகளை நெடிலாய் ஒலித்தால் உடற்காற்று மொத்தமும் வெளியேறிவிடும். உடற்காற்றோடு உடல்வெப்பமும் வெளியேறி நடுக்கம் கண்டுவிடும். அது மட்டுமில்லை, ஒலித்துவிட்டு மீண்டும் உள்ளிழுக்கும் புதுக்காற்று, உடலை உறைய வைக்கும் குளிர்ந்த வெப்பநிலையில் இருக்கும். இச்செய்கையால் உடல் வெப்பம் முழுதாய்த் தணிந்து, இறக்க வேண்டியதுதான். அதனால்தான் குளிர்ப்பிரதேச மொழியினராகிய ஆங்கிலேயர்கள் தம் மொழிச் சொற்களை மேல்கீழ் தாடைகளைக் கூடப் பிரிக்காமல் பேசுகின்றனர்.
ஆனால், தமிழ் மொழியின் எழுத்துகளும் சொற்களும் ஊக்கமுடன் கணீரென்று ஒலிக்கப்பட வேண்டியவை. தமிழ்மொழிச் சொற்கள் ஒவ்வொன்றின் ஒலிப்பிலும் உடலுக்குள் புத்துயிர்க்காற்று பரவும்
Leo Tolstoy’s epic—featuring hundreds of characters, numerous plot threads, and a battle sequence that lasts more than 20 chapters—is the literary equivalent of a marathon. Here are a few facts about the author, his struggles to bring War and Peace to life, and the lasting impact the work has had in Russia and beyond.
1. ITS ORIGINAL TITLE WAS THE YEAR 1805.
The first installment of Tolstoy’s work—”The Year 1805″—appeared in the journal Russian Messenger in February 1865. Serializing a work of fiction was common for writers at the time, and a way for Tolstoy to support himself as he continued working on the novel. The stark title indicated the year in which his story—and the rumblings of revolution—begins, and it’s one Tolstoy always saw as a placeholder. Other provisional titles followed as he continued working on the story, including, for a short time, “All’s Well That Ends Well.”
2. TOLSTOY WAS INSPIRED BY THE DECEMBRISTS’ REVOLT OF 1825.
The Russian count’s original plan for War and Peace was nothing like the end product. Tolstoy envisioned a trilogy that centered on the attempted overthrow of Tsar Nicolas I by a group of military officers who became known as The Decembrists.
The first book would examine the officers’ lives and ideological development during the Napoleonic Wars. The second book would focus on their failed uprising, with a third book following the officers during their exile and eventual return from Siberia. Tolstoy saw the uprising as a seminal moment in Russian history—a turning point in the nation’s history when Western ideals clashed with traditionally Russian ideals. As Tolstoy began writing, he was so taken with the time period surrounding the Napoleonic Wars that he decided to make it his sole focus.
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3. HIS WIFE WAS INVALUABLE TO HIS WRITING PROCESS.
Tolstoy would often insist that his wife Sofya sit with him while he wrote. She also served as her husband’s first reader, cleaning up his copy and noting changes she thought he should make. At Sofya’s insistence, Tolstoy axed a particularly racy scene from Pierre Bezukhov’s wedding night. Sofya would also copy her husband’s drafts into a more legible form for his publishers. As Rosamund Bartlett writes in Tolstoy: A Russian Life, her deciphering of Tolstoy’s “execrable handwriting, and then preparing a legible final draft of the manuscript was a gargantuan task.”
4. SOFYA WAS ALSO SHREWD ABOUT THE BUSINESS SIDE.
Tolstoy was pleased to see “The Year 1805” in serial form. The story was a hit with readers, and the publishers of Russian Messenger paid him well. But Sofya Tolstoy urged her husband to publish the work in book form, arguing that he could earn more money and reach a wider audience. They led to the 1867 novel War and Peace, which was only half the final novel. The book’s success inspired him to speed up his writing, which had begun to lag, and the complete novel was published in 1869.
5. TOLSTOY BASED MANY OF HIS CHARACTERS ON FAMILY MEMBERS.
While visiting family in Moscow in 1864, Tolstoy read his relatives sections of his work in progress. The family was surprised to hear numerous similarities between themselves and the characters. In a novel with as many characters as War and Peace (559 in all), this was, perhaps, inevitable.
It also added shades of authenticity, since some of Tolstoy’s family members, including his distant cousin Prince Sergey Volkonsky, had actually fought in the Napoleonic Wars. (As the name similarity might indicate, Tolstoy’s descendants inspired numerous members of the fictional Bolkonsky relatives). According to Bartlett, though, this was a common practice for Tolstoy. “Throughout his writing career, Tolstoy pillaged his family history for creative material,” she writes.
6. FRIENDS AND FAMILY HELPED WITH HIS RESEARCH.
A historical novel as long and involved as War and Peace required exhaustive research. Tolstoy read as many books about the Napoleonic Wars as he could. He also conducted interviews with veterans and visited battlefields like Borodino. But being one man, he didn’t have time to research everything himself. So he called on his father in law, Andrey Bers, who clipped old newspaper articles for Tolstoy and reminisced about his childhood in the early 1800s. Tolstoy also turned to historian friends for help, carrying on lengthy correspondences and even bringing some of them to his estate of Yasnaya Polyana. The most important asset in Tolstoy’s research may have been Moscow’s first public libraries, which opened in the 1860s as part of the cultural awakening that swept through the city.
7. IT TOOK HIM A YEAR TO WRITE THE OPENING SCENE.
War and Peace opens at a high-society soiree that introduces the reader to many of the novel’s principal characters. It’s an elegant beginning that took Tolstoy 15 drafts and nearly one year’s time before he was satisfied. A perfectionist, Tolstoy insisted on getting the introduction right before moving on. Thankfully for him, the rest of the novel came out at a faster pace.
8. TOLSTOY WAS CONSTANTLY REVISING.
Scholars note that Tolstoy’s progress on War and Peace frequently stalled as the author reworked portions of the book again and again. The constant churn could be frustrating to the author, who would often clear his head with hunting excursions on his estate at Yasnaya Polyana. Even after the six volumes of War and Peace were completed, Tolstoy went back and revised. He cut out pages and pages of commentary, eventually whittling the work down to four volumes.
9. HE FOUGHT FOR A BIG PAY DAY—AND GOT IT.
When he had previously published in Russian Messenger, Tolstoy received 50 rubles for each printer’s sheet. For Tolstoy’s war epic, publisher Mikhail Katkov wanted to continue paying the author at this rate. But according to Bartlett, Tolstoy knew he was worth more than that, and demanded 300 rubles per sheet. After hours of tense negotiations, Katkov agreed to the rate, and Tolstoy received 3000 rubles for the ten sheets that made up the first installment of “1805.” Consider that the average monthly wage for a Russian worker was 10 rubles, and you get some idea of just how much money Tolstoy was bringing in.
10. IT APPEARED IN RUSSIAN MESSENGER AT THE SAME TIME AS ANOTHER RUSSIAN MASTERPIECE.
In 1866, as the last installments of Tolstoy’s “1805” were being published; another story appeared in Russian Messenger that generated considerable buzz: Fyodor Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punishment. Appearing in monthly installments, the story—alongside “1805”—made Russian Messenger one of the most significant literary journals in history. The significance may have been lost on Katkov who, in addition to paying through the nose to Tolstoy, struggled to get Dostoevsky’s monthly submissions in on time.
11. CRITICS WERE BEWILDERED.
“What genre are we supposed to file it into?” a reviewer in the journal Golos asked. “Where is fiction in it, and where is history?” The question reflected a common sentiment amongst critics upon reading a novel that told of real events, re-created real battles, and included real people like Napoleon Bonaparte and Tsar Alexander I. Was War and Peace fiction, or was it non-fiction? The truth, of course, is that it was both.
In dramatizing history with such scope and detail, Tolstoy had taken a massive leap towards the modern historical novel. History, Tolstoy believed, is the chronicle of individual lives, and fiction is the best way to reveal those lives. Many readers were on board, and War and Peace became a smash success. “It is the epic, the history novel and the vast picture of the whole nation’s life,” novelist Ivan Turgenev wrote.
12. IT PRESENTED A REVOLUTION IN NARRATIVE PERSPECTIVE.
Tolstoy wasn’t the first author to utilize internal monologue (or the internal thoughts of characters), but many scholars credit him with revolutionizing its use. According to Kathryn Feuer, a Tolstoy scholar who had access to the author’s early drafts, the author mastered the art of presenting a character’s internal response to external objects and events.
She also noted, as others have, Tolstoy’s seamless use of multiple perspectives, from sweeping battle scenes that situate the reader high above the mayhem, to the intimate goings-on within the minds of Pierre Bezukhov, Natasha Rostova, and other characters.
13. TOLSTOY WROTE A DEFENSE OF THE BOOK.
Despite an overwhelmingly positive response to War and Peace from readers and critics, Tolstoy wanted to address those who criticized the work’s genre ambiguity. In the journal Russian Archive, Tolstoy wrote an essay titled “A Few Words About the Novel War and Peace’” (which, being Tolstoy, was much more than a few words).
He made clear his apathy toward European literary forms, famously claiming that War and Peace was not, in fact, a novel: “What is War and Peace? It is not a novel, still less a [narrative] poem, and even less an historical chronicle. War and Peace is what the author wanted to and could express in the form in which it was expressed.”
14. IT TOOK A TOLL ON HIS HEALTH.
The six years Tolstoy toiled away on War and Peace taxed both his mind and body. Toward the end of the writing process, he developed migraines, which he often tried to work through but which would sometimes stop him in his tracks. After finishing the work, he came down with a severe case of the flu that left him feeling drained for weeks. The author took a prolonged hiatus from writing, focusing instead on learning Greek and building a schoolhouse for the children who lived at Yasnaya Polyana.
15. MILITARY MINDS PRAISED THE BATTLE SCENES.
Tolstoy was no stranger to war. He served as an artillery officer during the Crimean War, where he witnessed the bloody orchestra of battle at places like Sevastopol. Tolstoy channeled his experiences into the battle sequences of War and Peace. The Battle of Borodino, in particular, which comprises more than 20 chapters of the book, is widely praised as the finest battle sequence ever written. Russian military commanders offered glowing praise for the novel’s descriptive powers of battle and one former general even wrote that it should be required reading for all Russian Army officers.
16. TOLSTOY WASN’T MUCH OF A WAR AND PEACE FAN.
Maybe it was all the time he spent with the story and all of its characters, or maybe the development of his sensibilities as an artist, but Tolstoy became disenchanted with his seminal work shortly after finishing it. He wrote to a friend that he hoped to never again write something as bloated as War and Peace. In his diary, he wrote, “People love me for the trifles—War and Peace and so on—that they think are so important.”
17. THE SOVIET FILM ADAPTATION OF THE WORK WAS APPROPRIATELY EPIC.
When American audiences think of grand, costly films, the likes of Gone with the Wind (1939), Cleopatra (1963), and Titanic (1997) typically come to mind. But Sergei Bondarchuk’s 1966 adaptation of War and Peace has them all beat. Filmed over six years—the same time it took Tolstoy to write the novel—and lasting six hours, the film supposedly had all the resources of the Soviet Union at its disposal. This included more than 120,000 extras, many of them Red Army soldiers, used to film the movie’s staggering battle sequences, and a budget that ballooned to more than $100 million.
But talking to National Geographic in 1986, Bondarchuk said that these numbers largely weren’t real: it was actually eight hours (“some tradesman in America cut it without my knowledge”) and the 120,000 extras was an exaggeration and “all I had was 12,000.”
The movie, shown to audiences in two parts, was intended to bolster patriotism and to showcase the strength of the Soviet film industry. That it also balances action with strong performances and odd, intimate moments, like a soldier demanding a commendation in the middle of a battle, is a testament to Bondarchuk’s artistry. “You are never, ever going to see anything equal to it,” wrote Roger Ebert.
18. RUSSIA RECENTLY HELD A 60-HOUR LONG LIVE READING.
In 2015, Russian state television aired a unique live reading of War and Peace. Over the course of 60 hours, more than 1000 Russians from all over the world read the book in three-minute increments. One by one, readers from Washington, Paris, Beijing, Nepal and numerous other locations took their turn. Cosmonaut Sergei Volkov, situated aboard the International Space Station, even read an excerpt. The event was organized by Leo Tolstoy’s great-great granddaughter, and included family members reading from Yasnaya Polyana, Tolstoy’s estate.
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